Non-animal Methods for Toxicity Testing

List of Acronyms

Last Updated: June 23, 2014
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Index:  A-E  F-J  K-O  P-T  U-Z

3D three dimensional
3Rs replacement, reduction, refinement
AALAS American Association for Laboratory Animal Science
ADI acceptable daily intake [human]
AFIP Armed Forces Institute of Pathology
AHI Animal Health Institute (US)
AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
ANDA Abbreviated New Drug Application (US FDA)
AOP Adverse Outcome Pathway
APHIS Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA)
ARDF Alternatives Research and Development Foundation
ATLA Alternatives to Laboratory Animals
ATSDR Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (US CDC)
BBMO Biosensors Based on Membrane Organization to Replace Animal Testing
BCOP Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability assay
BfR German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment
BLA Biological License Application (US FDA)
BRD Background Review Document (ICCVAM)
BSC Board of Scientific Counselors (US NTP)
BSE Bovine Spongiform Encephalitis
CAAI University of California Center for Animal Alternatives Information
CAAT Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing
CAMVA Chorioallantoic Membrane Vascularization Assay
CBER Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (US FDA)
CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US)
CDER Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (US FDA)
CDRH Center for Devices and Radiological Health (US FDA)
CERHR Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (US NTP)
CFR Code of Federal Regulations (US)
CFSAN Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (US FDA)
CHMP Committees for Medicinal Products for Human Use
CMR carcinogenic, mutagenic and reprotoxic
CO2 Carbon Dioxide
COLIPA European Cosmetic Toiletry & Perfumery Association
COMP Committee for Orphan Medicinal Products
CORDIS Community Research & Development Information Service
CORRELATE European Reference Laboratory for Alternative Tests
CPCP Chemical Prioritization Community of Practice (US EPA)
CPSC Consumer Product Safety Commission (US)
CTA Cell Transformation Assays
CVB Center for Veterinary Biologics (USDA)
CVM Center for Veterinary Medicine (US FDA)
CVMP Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use
DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (US)
DG Directorate General
DOD Department of Defense (US)
DOT Department of Transportation (US)
DRP Detailed Review Paper (OECD)
EC European Commission
ECB European Chemicals Bureau
ECHA European Chemicals Agency
ECOPA European Consensus Platform for Alternatives
ECVAM European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods
ED endocrine disrupters
EDQM European Directorate for Quality of Medicines & HealthCare
EEC European Economic Commission
EFPIA European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations
EFSA European Food Safety Authority
EFSA PPR Panel European Food Safety Authority Panel on plant protection products and their residues
EFTA European Free Trade Association
ELINCS European List of Notified Chemical Substances
ELISA Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay
EMEA European Medicines Agency
ENVI European Parliament Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety
EO Executive Orders (US)
EPA Environmental Protection Agency (US)
EPAA European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing
ESAC ECVAM Scientific Advisory Committee (EU)
ESOCOC Economic and Social Council (UN)
EU European Union
EURL ECVAM European Union Reference Laboratory on Alternatives to Animal Testing
EWG expert working group
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FDA Food and Drug Administration (US)
FFDCA Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (US)
FHSA Federal Hazardous Substances Act (US)
FIFRA Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (US)
FP framework program
FRAME Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments
GCCP good cell culture practice
GCP good clinical practice
GHS Globally Harmonized System for Classification and Labeling of Chemicals
GJIC gap junction intercellular communication [assay]
GLP good laboratory practice
GMO genetically modified organism
GMP good manufacturing practice
GPMT Guinea Pig Maximization Test
HCE, HCE-T human corneal epithelial cells
HESI ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute
HET-CAM Hen's Egg Test - Chorioallantoic Membrane assay
HHS Department of Health and Human Services (US)
HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus
HMPC Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products
HPV High Production Volume
HSUS The Humane Society of the United States
HTS high throughput screening
HGP Human Genome Project
IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer (WHO)
ICAPO International Council for Animal Protection in OECD
ICCVAM Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (US)
ICE isolated chicken eye
ICH International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use
ICSC International Chemical Safety Cards
IFAH-EUROPE International Federation for Animal Health Europe
IFPMA International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers & Associations
IIVS Institute for In Vitro Sciences
ILAR Institute for Laboratory Animal Research
ILO International Labour Organization
ILSI International Life Sciences Institute
IND investigational new drug (US FDA)
INVITROM International Society for In Vitro Methods
IOMC Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (WHO)
IPCS International Programme on Chemical Safety (WHO)
IQF International QSAR Foundation to Reduce Animal Testing
IRB institutional review board
IRE isolated rabbit eye
IWG Immunotoxicity Working Group (ICCVAM)
JaCVAM Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods
JAVB Japanese Association of Veterinary Biologics
JECFA Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives
JMAFF Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
JPMA Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association
JRC Joint Research Centre (EU)
JSAAE Japanese Society for Alternatives to Animal Experiments
JVPA Japanese Veterinary Products Association
KoCVAM Korean Center for the Validation of Alternative Method
Liintop Liver Intestine Optimization
LLNA Local Lymph Node Assay
MAD Mutual Acceptance of Data (OECD)
MEIC Multicenter Evaluation of In Vitro Cytotoxicity
MEMO MEIC monographs on time-related human lethal blood concentrations
MEPs Members of the European Parliament
mg milligrams [a unit of weight]
MHLW Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (Japan)
MLI Molecular Libraries Initiative (US NIH)
MSDS Material Safety Data Sheets
MW molecular weight
Nc3Rs UK National Center for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research
NKCA Netherlands Knowledge Centre on Alternatives to animal use
NCBI National Center for Biotechnology Information (US)
NCEH National Center for Environmental Health (US CDC)
NCGC NIH Chemical Genomics Center (US)
NCI National Cancer Institute (US NIH)
NCPDCID National Center for Preparedness, Detection and Control of Infectious Diseases
NCCT National Center for Computational Toxicology (US EPA)
NCTR National Center for Toxicological Research (US FDA)
NDA new drug application (US FDA)
NGO non-governmental organization
NIAID National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
NICA Nordic Information Center for Alternative Methods
NICEATM National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (US)
NIEHS National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (US NIH)
NIH National Institutes of Health (US)
NIHS National Institute of Health Sciences (Japan)
NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (US CDC)
NITR National Institute of Toxicological Research (Korea)
NOAEL no-observed adverse effect level
NOEL no-observed effect level
NPPTAC National Pollution Prevention and Toxics Advisory Committee (US EPA)
NRC National Research Council
NTP National Toxicology Program (US)
OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
OMCLs Official Medicines Control Laboratories
OPPTS Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances (US EPA)
ORF open reading frame
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration (US)
OSIRIS Optimized Strategies for Risk Assessment of Industrial Chemicals through the Integration of Non-test and Test Information
OTC over-the-counter [drug]
PBPK physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (modeling)
P&G Procter & Gamble
PhRMA Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America
PL public law
POPs Persistent Organic Pollutants
(Q)SAR (Quantitative) Structure Activity Relationship
QSM Quality, Safety and Efficacy of Medicines (WHO)
RA regulatory acceptance
REACH Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals
RHE reconstructed human epidermis
RIPs REACH Implementation Projects
RNAi RNA interference
rLLNA reduced Local Lymph Node Assay
SACATM Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (US)
SAICM Strategic Approach to International Chemical Management (WHO)
SANCO Health and Consumer Protection Directorate General
SCAHAW Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare
SCCP Scientific Committee on Consumer Products
SCENIHR Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks
SCFCAH Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health
SCHER Standing Committee on Health and Environmental Risks
SEPs Special Emphasis Panels (US NTP)
SIDS Screening Information Data Sets
SOT Society of Toxicology
SPORT Strategic Partnership on REACH Testing
TBD to be determined
TDG Transport of Dangerous Goods (UN committee)
TER transcutaneous electrical resistance
TEWG Technical Expert Working Group
TG Test Guideline (OECD)
ToBI toxin binding inhibition
TSCA Toxic Substances Control Act (US)
TTC threshold of toxicological concern
UC University of California
UCD University of California Davis
UK United Kingdom
UN United Nations
UNECE United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNITAR United Nations Institute for Training and Research
USAMRICD US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense
USAMRIID US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases
USAMRMC US Army Medical Research and Material Command
USDA United States Department of Agriculture
USUHS Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
UV ultraviolet
VCCEP Voluntary Children's Chemical Evaluation Program US EPA)
VICH International Cooperation on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Products
WHO World Health Organization
WRAIR Walter Reed Army Institute of Research
ZEBET Centre for Documentation and Evaluation of Alternative Methods to Animal Experiments (Germany)