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Non-animal Methods for Toxicity Testing

In Vitro Testing & Other Services


Last Updated: May 16, 2014
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In vitro testing and other laboratory services that support the development, use, and/or validation of non-animal test methods. If your lab has experience in conducting inter-laboratory validation of in vitro methods or conducts in vitro testing services, please contact info@alttox.org to be listed here.

4-Front Research, Ltd (Cheshire, UK): consumer healthcare testing company, including human clinical eye and skin irritation testing

Absorption Systems, LP (Exton, Pennsylvania, US): preclinical contract research organization; in vitro studies include drug-drug interaction, BCS biowaivers derived from Caco-2 testing, and ADME screening assays; company developed CellPort Technologies, a suite of preclinical in vitro tests for interactions between drugs and specific transport proteins identified by FDA as key mediators of drug safety

ADMET Group (Rockville, Maryland, US): in vitro & in vivo preclinical drug development and drug discovery contract research services; GLP studies

AllCells, LLC (Alameda, California): hematopoietic assays include cell based assays, in vitro expansion or differentiation, and in vitro characterization for mechanistic studies, hemotoxicity/cytotoxicity, and drug discovery

An-eX Analytical Services, Ltd. (Cardiff, UK): dermal research and development including in vitro human skin permeation studies performed according to the OECD 428 and other appropriate guidelines

Anthem Biosciences (Bangalore, India): contract research organization offers assays related to all segments of drug discovery, including in vitro and in vivo screening and ADME/PK

APSciences, Inc. (Baltimore, Maryland, US): consulting service for in vitro ADMET for drugs and drug candidates; in vitro ADMET Laboratory Setup Service; contract testing using the in vitro Integrated Multiple Organ Culture (idMOC) technology

Aptagen, LLC (Jacobus, Pennsylvania, US): aptamer and aptabody custom-based services to replace antibodies in research, diagnostic platforms, drug discovery and therapeutics

Arista Laboratories (Kingston upon Thames, UK and Richmond, VA): in vitro toxicology services for genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of tobacco products, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and personal care products; analytical methods development and validation

Asterand, plc (US and UK): recently merged with Pharmagene; supports human drug discovery by providing human biomaterials (cells, tissues, tissue microarrays, RNA) and preclinical research services using human primary cells & cell lines

Attagene, Inc. (Research Triangle Park, NC): High-throughput, cell-based assays for evaluation of mode of action and toxicity of chemicals and drugs

ATCC and Promega human cell line authentication service (Madison, Wisconsin, US) 

Aureus Sciences (Paris, France): services include: custom databases, target report, quality control, repurposing, and DMPK/drug-drug-interaction prediction; resource center provides wealth of information (white papers, technical guides, presentations, webinars, and more)

Austrian Research Centers (ARC) GmbH (Seibersdorf, Austria): CRO offering in vitro and in vivo toxicology services

AvantiCell Science, Ltd. (Ayr, Scotland): medium- to high-throughput cell-based screening services on a range of primary, human cell types; cell culture technology based on use of human cells and optimized culture conditions to retain tissue phenotype

BIOalternatives (Gencay, France): personalized services for R&D in biology include in vitro testing, development of cell-based assays, and high content screening (HCS)

Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Centre of Industrial Collaboration (BITECIC Ltd) (Leeds, UK): Simulate™ programme for pre-clinical evaluation of medical devices; CelTis™ programme for proteomics, cell therapy, and tissue engineering using a portfolio of well-characterized, functional human tissues and cell lines

Biometrix Inc. (San Francisco, California, US): cosmetic and personal care clinical product testing; expertise in safety, efficacy, and claims substantiation testing. Pharmaceutical and Medical Device (phases I-IV)

Bionas GmbH (Rostock, Germany): Bionas® analyzing system used with variety of cell types for testing toxic effects and other cell biology applications

Biopta, Ltd. (Glasgow, UK): contract research services using human tissues

BioReliance Corporation (Rockville, Maryland, US): manufacture and characterization of cell banks; toxicology studies

BioScience Laboratories, Inc. (Bozeman, Montana, US): in vitro and human clinical toxicology and safety testing including, ocular and skin irritation, phototoxicity, and in-use evaluations

BioSeek  (South San Francisco, California): BioMAP Systems are controlled sets of human primary cell cultures and co-cultures primed to physiologically model human disease states; resulting activity profiles can be compared to more than 3,000 reference profiles in BioMAP Database for predictions about molecular target, mechanism of action, off-target effects, toxicity, potency, pharmacodynamic properties, and biomarkers; Diversity 8 panel of BioMap systems (http://biomapsystems.com/biomap-applications/investigative-toxicology) has been used by US EPA for ToxCast program.

bioskin® (Hamburg, Germany): contract research organization specializing in dermatology clinical trials for safety, efficacy, and biophysical measurements

BioTeSys GmbH (Esslingen, Germany): contract research services (analytical services, human clinical studies, and in vitro testing) for the cosmetic and nutrition industry; ISO certified; experienced in corrosivity and irritation testing

BIOTOX, S.R.L. (Cluj, Romania): scientific and technical consultancy services for in vitro preclinical toxiclology, including in vitro methods applications, EU Directives implementation, GLP and ISO-9001 support, dossier and report preparation, and guidance in the optimization and validation preparatory steps

BioVisible (Groningen, The Netherlands): services include Mitox™ DNA - Mitochondrial toxicity assay to measure simultaneously the nuclear DNA and mitochondrial RNA content of the cell; assay can be used to assess toxicity and/or efficacy of antiviral treatment of cells (de Baar, et al., (2007). Effects of apricitabine and other nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors on replication of mitochondrial DNA in HepG2 cells. Antiviral Research. 76, 68-74).

BSL BioService Scientific Laboratories GmBH (Germany): contract laboratory for in vitro and in vivo toxicology

Caliper Life Sciences (Hanover, Maryland, US): CRO offering in vitro and in vivo toxicology services

Calvert Laboratories, Inc. (Olyphant, Pennsylvania, US): in vitro & in vivo contract testing for drug development

Capsant Neurotechnologies (UK): target validation platform of in vitro tissue-based screening technologies for CNS drug discovery, including ex vivo tissues (organotypic slices) and in vitro, 3-dimentional models

CCS Cell Culture Service (Hamburg, Germany and Monmouth Junction, New Jersey, US): contract research services for development of custom cell-based reagents and recombinant cell lines

CeeTox, Inc. (Kalamazoo, Michigan, US): in vitro toxicity screening assays for drug discovery, including: Acute Toxicity Screen; Drug-drug Interaction Tox Screen; CardioTox Panel®

Celentyx Ltd. (Birmingham, UK): human immune system focused R&D and services; Celentyx's Immuno-Profiling™ platform provides rapid analysis of drug action on human immune cells: enables elucidation of mode of action of immunomodulatory drugs; facilitates lead candidate prioritization; and/or identifies potential negative impact of a drug on the human immune system. Expertise in human immune system is based on Celentyx personnel and close association with MRC Centre for Immune Regulation

cellasys GmbH (Munchen, Germany): research, development, and maintenance of cell-based assays; consultant services for development of applications, data analysis, and data interpretation

CELLnTEC Advanced Cell Systems AG (Bern, Switzerland): contract research services for pharma and personal care industries using innovative culture media and 2D and 3D in vitro models of human and rodent epithelial cells (including new stem-cell based methods) for predictive toxicology screens, investigation of mechanistic toxicology, and product development

CellSystems Biotechnologie Vertrieb GmbH: Primary human cells, cell culture products, 3D reconstructed human epidermis, Matrix proteins, enzymes and cytokines

CellzDirect (Austin, Texas; Research Triangle Park, North Carolina): human hepatocytes and microsomes for in vitro metabolism and drug-drug interaction studies; GLP

Celsis In Vitro Technologies (US, Germany, UK): in vitro ADME-Tox services, standard and custom protocols; hepatocyte cell culture and related customized services

Cenix BioScience (Germany): customized research services for cell-based applications of RNA interference (RNAi) for research and drug discovery; experience in combining high throughput RNAi with high content phenotypic analyses in cultured human and rodent cells

Center for Biomedical Testing (Chicago, Illinois, US): contract research organization services for drug development and FDA submissions, including in vitro toxicity testing for metabolic stability, profiling, and identification; protein binding; cyp inhibition, activation, and phenotyping

Centre for Advanced Research & Development on Alternative Methods (CARDAM) (Belgium): in vitro contract testing, R&D, and related activities and consulting

The Centre for Applied Genomics (Toronto, Canada): genomics services to academic, government, or private sectors clients

Centrillion Biosciences, Inc. (Palo Alto, California): next-gen sequencing, high throughput genotyping, and bioinformatics services

Cerep (France, Japan, US): in vitro screening and profiling using proprietary database BioPrint® to model clinical effects of drugs from molecular properties; assay development services

Charles River Laboratories (Worldwide): provides information to complement preclinical metabolic, toxicokinetic, and bioanalytical investigations; provides qualitative and quantitative data to address a variety of regulatory questions

Chemical Inspection & Regulation Service (Hangzhou, China and Drogheda, Ireland, UK): chemical regulatory consulting; hazardous substance information; hazardous substance testing services in compliance with product safety standards and requirements in EU, US, Germany, China, and other countries or regions

Clinical Research Laboratories, Inc. (Piscataway, New Jersey, US): human clinical trials in dermatology, ophthalmology, and allergy

Clinworld (Mumbai and Bangalor, India): non-animal pre-clinical research and testing for evaluating toxicity and efficacy; GLP compliant in in vitro assay validation studies

CN Bio Innovations, Ltd. (Oxfordshire, UK): LiverChipTM multiwell 3D liver cell co-culture platform under dynamic perfusion; mimics architecture and physiology of human liver for drug metabolism and toxicity testing in pharmaceutical drug discovery

Consumer Product Testing Co., Inc. (Fairfield, New Jersey, US): in vitro & in vivo contract testing

Corning Life Sciences: in vitro drug-drug interaction and ADME testing services 

Covance (North Yorkshire, UK): toxicology services include in vitro cytotoxicity and phototoxicity testing; fish embryo test in development for ecotoxicology

Cultex® Laboratories (Hannover, Germany): in vitro exposure systems and technologies for toxicological analysis of airborne substances, such as gases, particles, complex mixtures and volatile compounds; experience in conducting inter-laboratory validation studies

Cutest Systems, Ltd. (Cardiff, UK): contract research organization specializing in human skin safety and efficacy testing of cosmetics, toiletries, OTC preparations, and dermatological products using in vitro test methods and human volunteer subjects (following standards of Good Clinical Practice and independent ethics committee review)

Cyprotex (Macclesfield, UK; Watertown, Massachusetts, US [formerly Apredica]; Kalamazoo, Michigan, US [formerly CeeTox]): contract research organization whose core capabilities include in vitro ADME, in vitro toxicology, PBPK and QSAR predictive modelling, and a range of in vitro non-GLP and GLP skin (sensitisation, irritation and corrosion), ocular (irritation) and endocrine disruption services. The company serves the Pharmaceutical and Biotech, Cosmetics/Personal Care and Chemicals Industries. 

CYTOX (Germany): toxicological testing and consultation for medical devices, supplies, cosmetics, and environmental samples

Dermac Laboratory, Inc. (Stamford, Connecticut, US): novel bioinstrumention techniques and analytical tools for noninvasive assessment of skin and hair properties (human clinical safety/efficacy testing)

Dermal Technology Laboratory Ltd. (Keele, England, UK): In vitro dermal (percutaneous) absorption studies using human epidermis and dermatomed skin, as part of safety and risk assessment of agrochemical, cosmetic, and industrial chemicals (OECD 428), in a GLP-accredited facility. DTL also conducts research on novel formulations, offering a range of prediction models from in silico, the in vitro epidermis screening test (INVEST) and other ex vivo skin models. The company also offers a consultancy service on all aspects of percutaneous absorption

Dermatest Pty Ltd (Sydney, Australia): sunscreen and skin care product evaluation facility that conducts full SPF and UVA product testing to AS/NZS 2604, as well as ISO, FDA,COLIPA, International, and Asian protocols

EcoArray, Inc. (Alachua, Florida, US): microarray products and services for ecotoxicity and endocrine disruptor testing

EDI GmbH (Germany): ex vivo Instant Leukocyte Culture System; customized cell culture systems and immunoassays; in vitro immunotoxicology and immunopharmacology; co-cultures of immune cells with other tissues

Eggcentris (Brussels, Belgium): in vitro tests to screen compounds for reproductive toxicity (effects on fertility and embryonic development)

ETT Spa (Genoese, Italy): Alternative Toxicity Services (ATS) platform provides high content screening services for evidence-based acute general toxicity and neurotoxicity; services using rat, mouse, and human neural cell types include: multi-electrode array electrophysiological recording, single-cell electrophysiology – Patch Clamp, calcium signaling and cytotoxicity, cell viability and cytotoxicity

Entelos, Inc. (Foster City, California, US): predictive biosimulation using in silico disease models and a virtual patient approach to improve the success rates of clinical trials

Epithelix Sàrl (Switzerland): provides in vitro assays to pharmaceutical, biotech, cosmetic, and chemical industries using their own human cellular models

Eurofins-Biolab (Italy): specialised laboratory for in vitro and in vivo toxicology and ecotoxicology

Exiqon (Vedbaek, Denmark): microRNA profiling services

Expression Analysis, Inc. (Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, US): full range of genomics services from experimental design to gene expression profiling to data analysis across multiple platforms, including Affymetrix, Applied Biosystems, Fluidigm, Illumina, Luminex Nanostring and RainDance Technologies, and Pacific BioSciences; CLSI and GLP compliant

Fluofarma (Pessac, Bordeaux, France): Assay development and high-content analysis contract research services for in vitro cell-based toxicity testing. Generation of multi-cell type cultures in 384-well format using rodent and human primary cells, IPS and ES cells. 2D cell cultures, 3D spheroids, and 2D polarized cell cultures available. Validated cell-based assays to assess hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, genotoxicity, and molecular toxicity pathways.

Fragment Analysis Facility (Baltimore, Maryland, US): short tandem repeat (STR) profiling service offered to any academic or research facility for human cell line authentication (comparison to known profile to confirm identity, or establish identity profile for new cell line); see NIH recommendation that all cell lines be authenticated before publication: http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-08-017.html

FRAME Alternatives Laboratory (UK): in vitro methods research and validation studies

Genetica DNA Laboratories, Inc. (Cincinnati, Ohio, US): STR profiling (DNA fingerprinting) analysis for verification/authentication of cell lines (primary and/or immortalized), as well as, stem cells used in research and drug development; see NIH recommendation that all cell lines be authenticated before publication: http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-08-017.html

GenPharmTox BioTech AG (Germany): offers in vitro and in vivo testing of drugs and chemicals; numerous in vitro toxicology and ADME-Tox methods offered, GLP studies

Gentronix (Manchester, UK): in vitro genotoxicity and mutagenicity testing services; suite of predictive toxicology in vitro testing services (mammalian cytotoxicity, mitochondrial toxicity, CYP interaction with 5 P450's CaCo-2 permeability, haemolysis screening, and others)

GlycoMar (Argyll, UK): screening assay services using primary human cells and cell lines; contract research services; glycobiology and enzyme products

Gnarus Systems, Inc. (Louisville, Kentucky): catā€SAR® structure-activity relationship (SAR) models to investigate the relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity include models for developmental toxicity, carcinogenicity, allergic contact dermatitis, respiratory sensitization, ocular toxicity, and others.

Harlan Laboratories (UK, US, Japan, Israel): contract laboratory for in vitro and in vivo safety evaluation of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, intermediates, and medical devices

Health Protection Agency Culture Collections (Salisbury, UK): contract cell culture services

HemoGenix, Inc. (Colorado Springs, Colorado, US): in vitro toxicity GLP contract services using proprietary and validated ATP bioluminescence technology platforms. High throughput assays from up to 8 species are available for blood stem cells (HALO©), mesenchymal stem cells (LUMENESC™) and other primary stem cells and stem cell lines, including ES and iPS cells (STEMAssays™). In vitro immunotoxicity ImmunoGlo™), hepatotoxicity (HepatoGlo™) and neurotoxicity (NeuroGlo™) are also performed

HemoShear, LLC (Charlotte, NC): research collaborations with pharmaceutical and biotech companies to support drug discovery and development efforts using HemoShear's proprietary platform technology for developing human or animal cell-based organ and disease systems; HemoShear technology transforms human cells from their static cell culture state and recalibrates them to their in vivo behavior

Hepregen Corp. (Medford, Massachusetts): contract research services using proprietary HepatoPac™ Liver Model to prioritize compounds and predict clinical parameters of drugs, including clearance of low turnover drugs in humans; HepatoPac MicroLiver Platform supports viable primary human or animal hepatocytes for several weeks for transporter, metabolism, and toxicity studies that mimic in vivo situations

Human HepCell (Paris, France): preclinical contract research organization specialized in liver pathologies; hepatotoxicity profiling and lead evaluation & selection using human normal and pathological cells and tissues

HμREL Corporation (New Brunswick, New Jersey, US): currently providing patented microfluidic devices with cultured cells that simulate pharmacokinetic interactions among multiple tissues and organs to select clients on a contract research basis, including: the HμRELstatic™ hepatocyte co-culture; and the HμRELflow™, which incorporates the HμRELstatic™ co-culture operated under physiologically simulative recirculatory or single-pass perfusion (flow) conditions

Iconix Biosciences (Mountain View, California, US): toxicogenomics services to profile drug candidates based on proprietary DrugMatrix® database of microarray and pharmacology data

IDEXX Laboratories, Inc. (Columbia, Missouri): cell line authentication service using STR-based DNA profiling and multiplex PCR to detect both contamination and misidentification

Imagen Biotech Ltd (Cheshire, UK): High Content Analysis (HCA) platform that supports many different cell biology assays; assays validated by Imagen

INDIGO Biosciences, Inc. (State College, Pennsylvania): contract research organization and product supplier specializing in nuclear receptor assays for drug discovery and toxicology screening; contract research services include various assay screening services and custom assay development

InSphero AG (Zurich, Switzerland): provides custom-made microtissues as scaffold-free, 3-dimensional microtissues in ready-to-use 96-well microwell formats for biomedical, pharmaceutical, and toxicity testing applications

Institute for In Vitro Sciences (IIVS) (Gaithersburg, Maryland, US): contract laboratory for in vitro toxicology, assay optimization and validation, GLP studies, workshops & training

Kinexus Bioinformatics Corporation (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada): systems proteomics, including antibody microarray services

KIYATEC, Inc. (Greenville, South Carolina): contract testing services using 2D and 3D cell-based assays for preclinical evaluation of biomaterials and drug toxicity and/or efficacy; custom development of in vitro cell-based microphysiologic models incorporating multiple cell types and relevant microenvironment using various cell types, including primary cells and/or immortalized cell lines

Leadscope, Inc. (Columbus, Ohio, US): license and access to FDA databases; data management and decision support tools; consultancy on building toxicity databases and prediction models

Linus Pauling Institute, Cancer Chemoprotection Program Core Laboratory (Corvallis, Oregon, US): genetic toxicology testing service for dietary compounds: Salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames test), single cell gel electrophoresis assay (SCG or Comet assay), micronucleus assay

Litron Laboratories (Rochester, New York, US): flow cytometer-based in vitro MicroFlow kits for micronucleus detection in a variety of cultured cells; assay can also provide cytotoxicity endpoints

Malacca Biotechnology Corporation (Ayer Keroh, Melaka, Malaysia): testing services for in vitro cytotoxicity and mutagenicity testing that comply with OECD GLP requirements

Marin Biologic Laboratories, Inc. (Tiburon, California, US): contract testing and research laboratory for in vitro toxicology, cell biology, assay development and validation; GLP studies

Marinco Bioassay Laboratory (Sarasota, Florida): aquatic toxicity testing assays

MB Research Laboratories (Spinnerstown, Pennsylvania, US): contract laboratory for in vitro and in vivo toxicology testing; GLP genetic toxicology assays

Mediacyte Gmbh (Heidelberg, Germany): upcyte® technology is used for 'upregulating' primary human cells whether needed for longer proliferation rates or upregulation of specific proteins or enzymes; different models of services and licences are available

Metalife AG (Winden, Germany): bioinformatics company dedicated to the development of various software applications for life science and bio-medical knowledge discovery; database development examples include Drug2Gene and PhenomicDB

Midwest BioResearch (Skokie, Illinois, US): preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies for drug development; cell-based bioassays; GLP genetic toxicology assays and novel screening assays

Miltenyi Biotec (Germany): bioinformatics and gene expression profiling services; manufacture of adult stem cells under cGMP conditions; miRNA expression profiling

Neuro-Zone, srl (Milan, Italy): state-of-the-art facility for high content, multiparametric approach to cell-based assays using proprietary microfluidics for unfolding cell-cell communication in complex intercellular scenarios (brain, cancer, immune system, etc.)

North American Science Associates (NAMSA) (Northwood, Ohio, US): contract research organization offering in vitro and in vivo services, including biocompatibility testing

NOTOX (Netherlands HQ, Japan, Switzerland, USA, India): in vitro GLP-compliant testing services include skin irritation, skin corrosion, eye irritation, and more

Organovo (San Diego, California): 3D human tissues created using NovoGen Bioprinter™ platform provided to industry partners for in vitro and clinical/therapeutic uses; tissues can be supplied in multi-well plates or other formats

Oroxcell SAS (Romainville, France): contract research organization specializing in non-animal test methods development; in vitro models for ADME, chemicals and cosmetics safety evaluation, and optimizing bioavailability; offers GLP compliant studies

PerkinElmer (Waltham, Massachusetts, US): cellular assay development service for high sensitivity, high-throughput assays; optimized reporter gene assays; biochemical enzyme and radioligand binding assays

Pharmacelsus (Saarbrücken, Germany): contract research organization offering in vitro and in vivo toxicology services

Phenion GmbH & Co. KG (Germany): contract laboratory owned by Henkel KGaA; in vitro cell & skin models and human in vivo studies for consumer products

Pion, Inc. (Billerica, Massachusetts, US): determination of pKa, log P, solubility, dissolution and permeability (GIT, BBB, dermal) of small molecules/drug candidates using instrumentation and laboratory services to focus resources on the most promising leads and avoid downstream surprises

Plexpress (Helsinki, Finland): ADME-Tox screening for pre-clinical drug analysis using TRAC, a novel method of gene expression analysis, enabling multiplex detection of target gene transcripts from a large number of samples in a single assay (up to 30 genes per well in 96 well plates)

PRACS Institute, Ltd. (Fargo, North Dakota, US): contract research organization offering pre-clinical, clinical, bioanalytical, and statistical research services to the pharmaceutical, biotechnology and skin care industries

ProImmune Ltd. (Oxford, UK): in vitro assays for immunogenicity risk management, including antigen presentation assays, sensitive, flow-cytometry based naïve primary T cell proliferation assays, DC-T cell proliferation assays, intracellular cytokine staining, MHC multimer staining, and ELISpot assay services for IFN-gamma, IL-2, and Granzyme B

Promega Corp. (Madison, Wisconsin, US; branches in 15 countries): custom assay services to develop complete custom biochemical and cell-basedassays 

Puracyp (Carlsbad, California, US): receptor activation, cytotoxicity, and species comparison screening services for drug discovery using proprietary cell lines

QFAB Bioinformatics (St. Lucia, Australia): bioinformatics services for life science researchers to analyze and manage large-scale datasets; contract research; scientific software development; prioritization of compounds and assays (Efficacy, Toxicity, ADME)

ReachBio, LLC (Seattle, Washington, US): contract research, testing, consulting, and educational services; assay services include well-characterized, biologically relevant, high-content in vitro and in vivo functional assays; in vitro assays use minimally manipulated primary cells (bone marrow, cord blood, mobilized blood, stromal/mesenchymal cells, etc.) from humans and other species

RegeneMed, Inc. (San Diego, California, US): RegeneTOX, human and animal 3-D liver tissue co-cultures; monolayer cell-based products from the same donor for comparison, stem cells and 3-D tissue; contract testing services for ADMET and efficacy assessment in drug discovery

SAFENANOin vitro hazard assessments for nanomaterials

SBH Sciences (Natick, Massachusetts, US): cytokines and antibodies for cell-based assays; also provides bioassay testing services

Simcyp Limited (Sheffield, UK): Simcyp ADME Simulator, workshops, and consultancy for ADME data interpretation and extrapolation

Sirius Analytical (Beverly, MA, US and Forest Row, East Sussex, UK): offers both instrumentation and contract research services for measurement of pKa, logP/logD, Solubility and Dissolution including detailed customized studies of Solubility, Supersaturation and Dissolution with real-time pH control in formulation excipients and biorelevant media

SIT Skin Investigation and Technology (Hamburg, Germany): contract research organization offering in vitro and in vivo dermatological testing services

Stemgent, Inc. (Cambridge, Massachusetts, US): services focused on pluripotent human stem cells, including generating human iPS cells, optimizing reprogramming and culturing conditions, and deriving reporter cell lines

Stemina (Madison, Wisconsin, US): provides stem cell drug screening services: devTOX-hESC uses mass spectrometry to identify small molecules (metabolomics) secreted by human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in response to drugs (Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 247:18-27, 2010); developing similar tests using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes

StratiCELL (Gembloux, Belgium): contract research organization for in vitro regulatory safety testing (e.g. REACH) and in vitro efficacy testing; also manufactures reconstituted skin models

TCS Cellworks, Ltd. (Buckingham, UK): contract testing employing cell-based assays, including GLP standards and statistical analysis

VaxDesigns Corporation (Orlando, Florida, US): MIMIC™ System—an in vitro surrogate of the human immune system; a high-throughput, cell-based method for testing human immune response to vaccines, drugs, cosmetics, chemicals, or other products

VIB MicroArray Facility (Belgium): academic core facility providing access to a full microarray analysis service

VitroCell Systems (Germany): contract research using human cells; VitroCell chamber for in vitro studies of gases or complex mixtures

VitroScreen (Milan, Italy): in vitro testing, including GLP services, for skin irritation and corrosion, dermal penetration, phototoxicity, and severe eye irritation (BCOP)

Vivacell Biotechnology GmbH (Germany): contract research organization offering in vitro and in vivo testing services, including GLP in vitro toxicity testing

Xceleron Ltd (York, UK): offers ultrasensitive platform technology of accelerator mass spectrometry in biomedical research and human microdosing to accelerate drug development

XCellR8 (Manchester, UK): contract research for development and optimization of cell-based methods and in vitro toxicology testing

Xenobiotic Detection Systems (Durham, North Carolina): XDS-CALUX® reporter gene-based screening bioassay for dioxin and related dioxin-like chemicals; LUMI-CELL® ER cell-based assay for detecting endocrine disruptor chemicals

Xenometrix AG (Allschwil, Switzerland): mutagenicity and cytotoxicity testing services

XenoTech, LLC (Lenexa, Kansas, US): contract research and testing for in vitro drug metabolism using XenoTech reagents and hepatocytes from human and other species

Zyleris Pharmatech (Lake Bluff, Illinois, US): contract research services for topical and transdermal drug R&D, including high-throughput in vitro skin absorption and permeation screening services